This post is part three (and the last) of reflections on a conversation I had with Chelsea Troy about our testing and development heuristics.
I asked Chelsea, how do you get people to be less clingy about holding on to tests that don’t add value?
She speculates that this will require getting people to unpack the psychological baggage they hold around the value of their tests or code. Once people have written tests or code, they don’t want to get rid of them because that is the primary visible evidence that they’ve done something. Developers rarely get recognized for removing unused code or throwing away brittle or inconsequential tests.
So how can you turn this attitude around? Let’s be blunt. Developers do lots of things to improve their ability to write and maintain code. They shouldn’t be penalized for these activities. Professional software development isn’t just cranking out code.
A Heuristic for Switching Things Up
I learned this guiding heuristic from a colleague, John Schwartz: If something you are doing isn’t buying you any new or useful information, stop doing it. Instead, move on to something that will. And, if that doesn’t work, try something else. Don’t settle.
John applied this heuristic to every aspect of software development and management. Applied to testing: If tests always pass (or frequently fail because of nitpicky things that don’t matter), throw them out. When you fix brittle UI tests, only to find that they fail with the next CSS style change, recognize that you aren’t making forward progress or learning anything new. Repeatedly fixing those brittle tests is simply busywork.
You are better off acknowledging that you are testing at the wrong (too low) a level and that to buy information you should be testing differently.
So, what happens when you throw out those tests?
Arguably, you will have less clutter and useless information to wade through when something breaks your build. And if you do miss some of those tests, you can always bring them back. Or decide to run them periodically.
I have seen clients hold on to coding and testing practices that slow them down. At one client, developers frequently left unused code as comments so they wouldn’t forget about it just in case it might be needed. When asked “Why not just use version control?” they worried that they would forget about the code. But how long had that code been frozen in comments? When’s the last time you unthawed some commented code and used it as is?
In another situation, I once reviewed some code for a function which had a parameter that was never used. At one time it was; but now that code was obsolete. Every new team member struggled to understand the reason for that parameter and what the code that handled it did. I tried to convince them to remove this useless code. It would take less than 20 minutes. I’m not sure whether they did. But at least I got them to recognize that this dead code was an impediment. Before I pointed out this out, they had just considered the time it took to understand that code to be an annoying rite of passage for new developers.
Documenting Your Actions
Chelsea is experimenting with ways to simplify and minimize code and tests. The more stuff you have to wade through, the harder it is to maintain and debug your code. Reducing extraneous stuff–whether it is overly complex code, unused code, or awkward tests–makes life easier. She is also trying to get her team to write commit messages to document these efforts. She wants to leave a documentation trail. Her heuristic: When you pare down of code and tests, document both what has changed and why.
Using commit records as documentation won’t work well unless everyone follows conventions. But is it realistic to expect everyone to be as diligent as Chelsea at documenting their work? Developing software is a team sport. Unless we agree on how to work together, and then follow through on our agreements, results will be inconsistent. Even so, people still bend or disregard working agreements. I suspect there are several reasons for this: maybe they didn’t fully buy into the practice, or maybe they didn’t understand or appreciate the reasons behind what we agreed to, or…
When this happens, whatever the reasons, something needs to change. And we won’t know exactly what’s going on unless we talk to each other.
Chelsea suggests that we could benefit greatly from uncovering each other’s assumptions instead of simply letting things slide. How can you do this? Be direct: Ask people to think really hard and to openly share their thoughts and values. Then decide what actions to take.
Getting Maximal Value out of Documentation with Minimal Effort
Chelsea sees a similar a problem with software documentation. No one wants to write it. But they do so because they think they should. But they don’t bother updating existing docs. So, documentation gets out of date and they end up with lots of inaccurate versions. I’ve seen this problem many times throughout my consulting career. As I know I’m one of those rare individuals who actually likes to write documentation… I know that you can’t fix this problem by telling developers to just try harder. (Again, rarely do developers get rewarded for writing documentation).
One useful heuristic for mitigating your out-of-date documentation problem is to create “living” documentation (instead of static documentation that is written once and never updated). Cyrille Martraire has written a great book, Living Documentation, that contains many heuristics (written as patterns), and examples demonstrating code to create it. Living documentation is generated by executing scripts that extract facts from your codebase or running system or repositories. Then, using that information, those scripts dynamically generates or updates your documentation. A central value underlying Cyrille’s heuristics is to make documentation integral to software development, rather than it being a separate activity. If you connect your documentation directly to your code, it will always be up-to-date with the latest code. He suggests starting small, then growing tooling and scripts as you find the need. The guiding heuristic behind all of Cyrille’s heuristics is: Don’t let software documentation become stale; proactively generate documentation with information that can be automatically refreshed.
Efforts to create living documentation, streamline software development, or making software codebases more sustainable, are often undervalued. They shouldn’t be. My guiding heuristic: Cut out the crap so you can focus your development attention on the important stuff.